How to identify and prevent repeat breeding ?
Identification and Preventive measures for repeat breeding
If the cows are not conceiving even after subsequent inseminations, repeat breeding can be suspected. By testing the color and quality of the vaginal discharge, we can identify whether the cow has any uterus infections.
Whiteside test: Uterus infections without visible symptoms can be identified using this test.
Phenolsulfonphthalein test, endometrial biopsy, ultrasonic scanning, cervical mucus test, etc be used to identify reproductive aberrations.
Methods to prevent repeat breeding
Avoid inseminations in subsequent heat cycles, instead of that, give sexual rest. This method has been found efficient to tackle this plight. Sexual rest leads to increased flow of White Blood Cells to the infected cells and will initiate repairs. Artificial Insemination should be done by recognized institutions.
Repeat breeding caused by late ovulation can be surmounted by inseminating twice keeping 24 hours.
Inseminating once early morning and again evening is efficient during hot summers. Along with that, the body of cows has to be cooled by spraying water and keeping them under shade.
Injecting HCG and GnRH hormones and antibiotics during artificial insemination has been found effective. Cleaning the uterus using antiseptics can be practiced.
All these injections and applications have to be used only if necessary. Inseminating without all these additional applications is the best practice if possible.
Providing Vitamin D3 supplements can help reduce oxidative stress.
Oestrus Synchronization Protocols can be practiced to synchronize heat cycles in cows. For this progesterone. Prostaglandins and GnRH can be used. For this, the level of hormones can be adjusted by inserting hormone implants such as CIDR (Controlled Internal Drug Release Device) and TRIU-B into the vagina, which release a controlled amount of the hormone progesterone. Perform artificial insemination in a scientific manner using sterile equipment. Utilize the services of experts in this field. Symptoms of heat cycles usually last 12 to 24 hours in cows. Cows should be inseminated in the middle or late stages of heat cycles. This is the best time to achieve high fertility. In other words, cows that show signs of heat cycles in the evening should be inseminated the next morning, and cows with symptoms in the morning should be inseminated in the evening.
Since the sperms of cows can stay fertile only up to 24 hours, inseminating in the initial days of heat cycles may not be effective as the ovulation may get delayed leading to failure in fertilization. Similarly inseminating some hours late after ovulation also leads to failure in fertilization as the ovules may lose their fertility.
Let us discuss the methods to enhance reproductive capacity.
The main way to improve the reproductive efficiency of cows is to produce multiple eggs from one cow and subsequently transfer the embryo. The aim is to get more offspring from reproductively efficient cows. A cow that normally produces one calf per year can produce multiple eggs and produce multiple embryos from it. These embryos are deposited in the uterus of other cows. There the embryo matures and develops into a healthy calf. However, the cost of such technologies is very high.
IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)
With the help of Ultrasound-Guided Ovum Pickup (OPU) technology, oocytes can be collected from elite (highly productive) cows. These oocytes mature in the laboratory. (In vitro Maturation - IVM) is then fertilized with bull sperm (IVF). Embryos thus obtained are deposited in the uterus of other cows. This technology can produce hundreds of offspring in a short period of time. The advantages of this technique are maximum production of offspring, production of siblings of the same age, protection of animals of high genetic quality, and ensuring pregnancy for cows with different infertility problems.
The use of sex-determined semen.
This technique involves the sex determination of sperm using a flow cytometric technique with 95% accuracy. Sperm capable of producing female offspring are collected and used for artificial insemination. Only female offspring are born through this.
Let us discuss spread more knowledge in the upcoming blogs.
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