Here are some statistics and schedules that farmers need to know for profitable cattle rearing.
Similar to any other venture, there are certain schedules and statistics involved in cattle farming also. Often the miscalculations and untimely actions lead to losses.
Let us learn them one by one :
Caring the calves
Dairy farmers need to pay attention when it comes to calves' health care :
The average weight of a hybrid calf at the time of calving is 25Kgs.
The first dose of deworming medication is on the 10th day after birth.
The calf should consume colostrum within 30 minutes after birth.
The colostrum should be given in a quantity of 5-8% of the calf's body weight. Ie, 2.5-3.5 Kg.
After 10-12 hours of first feeding, repeat feeding.
From the 2nd and 3rd day onwards, ensure that the calf is consuming milk proportional to 10% of its body weight.
Cut the umbilical cord just after calving.
Ensure that the cut is 2-3 cms away from the calf’s body.
Colostrum is rich in 5-6% fat and 2-5% lactose.
Extra teats should be removed within 2 months post-calving.
The calf should be ear-tagged within 2 days after birth.
Dehorning of the calf should be practiced within 7-10 days after birth.
Cow and calf can be separated just after calving or after 3 months.
The calf should at least have a 1 square meter area to stay.
From the 2nd week onwards, the calf should be introduced to fodder.
Starter feeds can be given from the 2nd week to 6 months.
Ensure 70% Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) and 18% Digestible Crude
Protein-DCP in calf’s feed.
FMD vaccine should be initiated from the 4th month and should be repeated every 6 months.
FMD and Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) vaccines should be given to calves.
Ensure that the deworming medications are given 2 weeks before vaccination.
Caring the Heifers
From 15- 18 months onwards the heifers start becoming fertile.
Artificial insemination can start from the 18th month.
The heifer should have at least 60% of an average adult cow to be eligible for 1st insemination.
The heifer should conceive by 2 years of age.
Heat cycles last for 21 days.
Heat symptoms will be shown for 12-14 hours.
Insemination should be done in between the heat or at the end.
A pregnancy check-up should be done 60-75 days after insemination.
The pregnancy duration is 285 +/- 10 days.
15-20 Kg fodder and 1.5-2 Kg feed should be given to the heifers.
Total Digestible Nutrients TDN of 70% and Digestible Crude Protein-DCP of 14-16% should be present in heifer feed.
Caring for the cows.
Cows have an average lifespan of 18-22 years.
In exotic hybrid cows around 50% of exotic genetic content is seen in India.
A cow is profitable if it produces at least 12 liters of milk per day.
In lactation, the cow produces a maximum quantity of milk for 4-6 weeks.
Maximum milk yield is shown in the 3rd to 4th lactation.
The cow should have 60 days of the dry period between 2 lactations.
The cows milking should be stopped by the 7th month of pregnancy.
Cows lactate for 305 days per lactation.
The cow should be inseminated only after 60-90 days post-calving.
Within 12 hours of calving symptoms, we can expect the delivery.
Within 8-12 hours post-delivery, placental discharge happens.
Calving has 3 stages.
1st stage of calving is 2-6 hours.
2nd stage of calving is 0.5-2 hours.
3rd stage of calving is 8-12 hours.
Cow milk should have at least 3.2% fat.
A cow should be milked for a maximum of 8 minutes.
A milking cow’s feed should have 70% Total Digestible Nutrients and 14-16% -Digestible Crude Protein.
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